The history of jazz is thoroughly researched with regard to some African countries, but there are hardly any contributions that deal with current developments. This is certainly true for Madagascar, where jazz established itself comparatively late and has not yet been taken into account by the anthropology of music. Influenced by cultural funding from France, Malagasy jazz is currently differentiating and professionalising itself, and jazz-related styles are increasingly influencing popular music as a whole. The project explores the importance of jazz in shaping Malagasy society. It takes a look at bands and musicians, historical and current stylistic developments, as well as characteristic performance venues and funding practices of Malagasy jazz. The aim is to develop an understanding of the relationship between jazz and the shaping of social realities, mainly on two levels: on a structural level, i.e. with regard to the organisation of jazz as a musical practice, and on an aesthetic level, i.e. with regard to what contribution jazz makes to this because of its specific musical form.